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Brazil :: South America



Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world's strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country's rise. However, from about 2013 to 2016, Brazil was plagued by a sagging economy, high unemployment, and high inflation, only emerging from recession in 2017. Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF (2011-2016) was removed from office in 2016 by Congress for having committed impeachable acts against Brazil's budgetary laws, and her vice president, Michel TEMER, served the remainder of her second term. In October 2018, Jair BOLSONARO won the presidency with 55 percent of the vote and assumed office on 1 January 2019.



Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates:

10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references:

South America


total: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
country comparison to the world: 6

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:

total: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1263 km, Bolivia 3403 km, Colombia 1790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1308 km, Paraguay 1371 km, Peru 2659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1050 km, Venezuela 2137 km


7,491 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin


mostly tropical, but temperate in south


mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt


mean elevation: 320 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m

Natural resources:

alumina, bauxite, beryllium, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, niobium, phosphates, platinum, tantalum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:

agricultural land: 32.9% (2011 est.)
arable land: 8.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 23.5% (2011 est.)
forest: 61.9% (2011 est.)
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:

54,000 sq km (2012)

Population distribution:

the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro

Natural hazards:

recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues:

deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; illegal wildlife trade; illegal poaching; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina

People and Society


211,715,973 (July 2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7


noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups:

White 47.7%, Mulatto (mixed White and Black) 43.1%, Black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, Indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)


Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages


Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile:

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas (slums). ++ Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.

Age structure:

0-14 years: 21.11% (male 22,790,634/female 21,907,018)
15-24 years: 16.06% (male 17,254,363/female 16,750,581)
25-54 years: 43.83% (male 46,070,240/female 46,729,640)
55-64 years: 9.78% (male 9,802,995/female 10,911,140)
65 years and over: 9.21% (male 8,323,344/female 11,176,018) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 43.5
youth dependency ratio: 29.7
elderly dependency ratio: 13.8
potential support ratio: 7.3 (2020 est.)

Median age:

total: 33.2 years
male: 32.3 years
female: 34.1 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Population growth rate:

0.67% (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139

Birth rate:

13.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136

Death rate:

6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128

Net migration rate:

-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Population distribution:

the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro


urban population: 87.1% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

22.043 million Sao Paulo, 13.458 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.084 million Belo Horizonte, 4.646 million BRASILIA (capital), 4.137 million Porto Alegre, 4.127 million Recife (2020)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

Infant mortality rate:

total: 15.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.7 years
male: 71.2 years
female: 78.4 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126

Total fertility rate:

1.73 children born/woman (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

80.2% (2013)

Drinking water source:

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 91.6% of population
total: 98.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 8.4% of population
total: 1.6% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure:

9.5% (2017)

Physicians density:

2.17 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density:

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access:

improved: urban: 92.8% of population
rural: 60.1% of population
total: 88.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.2% of population
rural: 39.9% of population
total: 11.7% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.5% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

920,000 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

14,000 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Brazil; as of 8 December 2020, Brazil has reported a total of 6,533,968 cases of COVID-19 or 30,739 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 828 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; the Department of Homeland Security has issued instructions requiring US passengers who have been in Brazil to travel through select airports where the US Government has implemented enhanced screening procedures

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

22.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 82

Education expenditures:

6.3% of GDP (2017)
country comparison to the world: 22


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.2%
male: 93%
female: 93.4% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 28.5%
male: 25.3%
female: 32.8% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39


Country name:

conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye

Government type:

federal presidential republic


name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands ++ etymology: name bestowed on the new capital of Brazil upon its inauguration in 1960; previous Brazilian capitals had been Salvador from 1549 to 1763 and Rio de Janeiro from 1763 to 1960 ++ ++

Administrative divisions:

26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins


7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 7 September (1822)


history: several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988
amendments: proposed by at least one third of either house of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by simple majority vote by more than half of the state legislative assemblies; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote by both houses in each of two readings; constitutional provisions affecting the federal form of government, separation of powers, suffrage, or individual rights and guarantees cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2017

Legal system:

civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent only: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years


voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and if illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2018 with runoff on 28 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)
election results: Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%

Legislative branch:

description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of: Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) ++ Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 7 October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held in October 2022 for one-third of the Senate) ++ Chamber of Deputies - last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 7, PP 5, REDE 5, DEM 4, PSDB 4, PSDC 4, PSL 4, PT 4, PDT 2, PHS 2, PPS 2, PSB 2, PTB 2, Podemos 1, PR 1, PRB 1, PROS 1, PRP 1, PSC 1, SD 1; composition - men 70, women 11, percent of women 13.6% ++ Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 56, PSL 52, PP 37, PMDB 34, PSDC 34, PR 33, PSB 32, PRB 30, DEM 29, PSDB 29, PDT 28, SD 13, Podemos 11, PSOL 10, PTB 10, PCdoB 9, NOVO 8, PPS 8, PROS 8, PSC 8, Avante 7, PHS 6, Patriota 5, PRP 4, PV 4, PMN 3, PTC 2, DC 1, PPL 1, REDE 1; composition - men 462, women 51, percent of women 9.9%; total National Congress percent of women 10.4%

Judicial branch:

highest courts: Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system

Political parties and leaders:

Avante [Luis TIBE] (formerly Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB) ++ Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO] ++ Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER] ++ Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL] ++ Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz] ++ Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA] ++ Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Tasso JEREISSATI] ++ Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros] ++ Christian Democracy or DC [Jose Maria EYMAEL] (formerly Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC) ++ Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO] ++ Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO] ++ Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI] ++ The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL) ++ Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS] ++ Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA] ++ Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO] ++ National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos] ++ New Party or NOVO [Moises JARDIM] ++ Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO] ++ Patriota [Adilson BARROSO Oliveira] (formerly National Ecologic Party or PEN) ++ Podemos [Renata ABREU] (formerly National Labor Party or PTN) ++ Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE] ++ Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA] ++ Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE] ++ Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR] ++ Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS] ++ Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS] ++ Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR] ++ Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO] ++ Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA] ++ Sustainability Network or REDE [Marina SILVA] ++ United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA] ++ Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA] ++ Workers' Party or PT [Gleisi HOFFMAN]

International organization participation:

AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Nestor Jose FORSTER (since 11 July 2019)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires William POPP (since 3 November 2018)
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO AA 34030
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Belo Horizonte, Recife, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo

Flag description:

green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

National symbol(s):

Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue

National anthem:

name: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted


Economic overview:

Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country's history. In 2017, Brazil`s GDP grew 1%, inflation fell to historic lows of 2.9%, and the Central Bank lowered benchmark interest rates from 13.75% in 2016 to 7%. ++ The economy has been negatively affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials, including the impeachment and conviction of Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF in August 2016. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — have limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors but creating opportunities for foreign companies to step into what had been a closed market. ++ The succeeding TEMER administration has implemented a series of fiscal and structural reforms to restore credibility to government finances. Congress approved legislation in December 2016 to cap public spending. Government spending growth had pushed public debt to 73.7% of GDP at the end of 2017, up from over 50% in 2012. The government also boosted infrastructure projects, such as oil and natural gas auctions, in part to raise revenues. Other economic reforms, proposed in 2016, aim to reduce barriers to foreign investment, and to improve labor conditions. Policies to strengthen Brazil's workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, have boosted employment, but at the expense of investment. ++ Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc that includes Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay - Venezuela's membership in the organization was suspended In August 2017. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to volatile foreign markets and it currently is negotiating Free Trade Agreements with the European Union and Canada.

GDP real growth rate:

1.13% (2019 est.)
1.2% (2018 est.)
1.62% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

3.7% (2019 est.)
3.6% (2018 est.)
3.4% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158

Credit ratings:

Fitch rating: BB- (2018)
Moody's rating: Ba2 (2016)
Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2018)

GDP (purchasing power parity) - real:

$2,973,364,000,000 (2019 est.)
$2,940,085,000,000 (2018 est.)
$2,905,196,000,000 (2017 est.)
note: data are in 2010 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$1,877,942,000,000 (2019 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$11,117 (2019 est.)
$11,075 (2018 est.)
$11,030 (2017 est.)
note: data are in 2010 dollars
country comparison to the world: 112

Gross national saving:

15% of GDP (2017 est.)
14.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 6.6% (2017 est.)
industry: 20.7% (2017 est.)
services: 72.7% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 63.4% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 15.6% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 12.6% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -11.6% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores:

59.1 (2020)

Agriculture - products:

coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef


textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate:

0% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169

Labor force:

86.621 million (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 9.4%
industry: 32.1%
services: 58.5% (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate:

11.93% (2019 est.)
12.26% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164

Population below poverty line:

4.2% (2016 est.)
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 43.4% (2016 est.)


revenues: 733.7 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 756.3 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

35.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Public debt:

84% of GDP (2017 est.)
78.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Current account balance:

-$50.927 billion (2019 est.)
-$41.54 billion (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203


$291.452 billion (2019 est.)
$298.565 billion (2018 est.)
$286.935 billion (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Exports - partners:

China 21.8%, US 12.5%, Argentina 8.1%, Netherlands 4.3% (2017)

Exports - commodities:

transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles


$271.257 billion (2019 est.)
$268.237 billion (2018 est.)
$248.961 billion (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25

Imports - commodities:

machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics

Imports - partners:

China 18.1%, US 16.7%, Argentina 6.3%, Germany 6.1% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$374 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$367.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Debt - external:

$547.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$548.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21

Exchange rates:

reals (BRL) per US dollar -
5.12745 (2020 est.)
4.14915 (2019 est.)
3.862 (2018 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)


Electricity access:

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity - production:

567.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Electricity - consumption:

509.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Electricity - exports:

219 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

Electricity - imports:

41.31 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

150.8 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

17% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

64% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

18% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

Crude oil - production:

2.587 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Crude oil - exports:

736,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17

Crude oil - imports:

297,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25

Crude oil - proved reserves:

12.63 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Refined petroleum products - production:

2.811 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

2.956 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Refined petroleum products - exports:

279,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Refined petroleum products - imports:

490,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17

Natural gas - production:

23.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29

Natural gas - consumption:

34.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Natural gas - exports:

134.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48

Natural gas - imports:

10.51 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Natural gas - proved reserves:

377.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

513.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13


Telephones - fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 33,585,164
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15.97 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

Telephones - mobile cellular:

total subscriptions: 207,862,093
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 98.84 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

Telecommunication systems:

general assessment: Brazil is one of the largest mobile and broadband markets in Latin America; 5G auction delayed due to interference issues; four major (mobile network operators) MNOs offering a range of voice and data services; broadband penetration only behind Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay; country is a pioneer in the region for M-commerce (electronic commerce conducted on mobile phones) (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 16 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major impetus broadening telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 99 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 55; landing points for a number of submarine cables, including Malbec, ARBR, Tamnat, SAC, SAm-1, Atlantis -2, Seabras-1, Monet, EllaLink, BRUSA, GlobeNet, AMX-1, Brazilian Festoon, Bicentenario, Unisur, Junior, Americas -II, SAE x1, SAIL, SACS and SABR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station; satellites is a major communication platform, as it is almost impossible to lay fiber optic cable in the thick vegetation (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media:

state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated

Internet country code:


Internet users:

total: 140,908,998
percent of population: 67.47% (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Broadband - fixed subscriptions:

total: 31,233,004
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6


National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 9 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,109,977 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,845,650,000 mt-km (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

PP (2016)


4,093 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 2

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 698 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 436 (2017)
under 914 m: 49 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 3,395 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619 (2013)
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)


13 (2013)


5959 km refined petroleum product (1,165 km distribution, 4,794 km transport), 11696 km natural gas (2,274 km distribution, 9,422 km transport), 1985 km crude oil (distribution), 77 km ethanol/petrochemical (37 km distribution, 40 km transport) (2016)


total: 29,850 km (2014)
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified) (2014)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 9


total: 2 million km (2018)
paved: 246,000 km (2018)
unpaved: 1.754 million km (2018)
country comparison to the world: 4


50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 3

Merchant marine:

total: 864
by type: bulk carrier 12, container ship 17, general cargo 45, oil tanker 41, other 749 (2019)
country comparison to the world: 26

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (3,853,719) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao

Military and Security

Military and security forces:

Brazilian Armed Forces: Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Aviation and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB); Public Security Forces (2020)

Military expenditures:

1.5% of GDP (2019)
1.5% of GDP (2018)
1.4% of GDP (2017)
1.4% of GDP (2016)
1.4% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 78

Military and security service personnel strengths:

size assessments for the Brazilian Armed Forces vary; approximately 360,000 active personnel (215,000 Army; 75,000 Navy; 70,000 Air Force) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:

the Brazilian military's inventory consists of a mix of domestically-produced and imported weapons, largely from Europe and the US; since 2010, France, Germany, the UK, and the US are the leading suppliers of military equipment to Brazil; Brazil's defense industry is capable of designing and manufacturing equipment for all three military services and for export; it also jointly produces equipment with other countries (2019 )

Military deployments:

220 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2020)

Military service age and obligation:

18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)

Military - note:

the military's primary role is enforcing border security, particularly in the Amazon states; it also assists with internal security operations with a focus on organized crime ++ Brazilian police forces are divided into Federal Police (around 15,000 personnel), Military Police (approximately 400,000 personnel), and Civil Police (approximately 125,000 personnel); the Federal Police serve under the Ministry of Justice, while the Military and Civil police are subordinate to the state governments; the National Public Security Force (Forca Nacional de Seguranca Publica or SENASP) is a national police force made up of Military Police from various states; article 144 of the Brazilian constitution states that all state Military Police are classified as reserve troops and ancillary forces of the Brazilian Army

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:

uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 251,832 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or received alternative legal stay) (2020)
stateless persons: 7 (2019)

Illicit drugs:

second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area