Fork me on GitHub

Brunei :: East & Southeast Asia



The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world. In 2017, Brunei celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Sultan Hassanal BOLKIAH's accession to the throne.



Southeastern Asia, along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:

4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:

Southeast Asia


total: 5,765 sq km
land: 5,265 sq km
water: 500 sq km
country comparison to the world: 172

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:

total: 266 km
border countries (1): Malaysia 266 km


161 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line


tropical; hot, humid, rainy


flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west


mean elevation: 478 m
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:

agricultural land: 2.5% (2011 est.)
arable land: 0.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 71.8% (2011 est.)
other: 25.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:

10 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards:

typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues:

no major environmental problems, but air pollution control is becoming a concern; seasonal trans-boundary haze from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; the eastern part, the Temburong district, is an exclave and is almost an enclave within Malaysia

People and Society


464,478 (July 2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173


noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:

Malay 65.7%, Chinese 10.3%, other 24% (2016 est.)


Malay (Bahasa Melayu) (official), English, Chinese dialects


Muslim (official) 78.8%, Christian 8.7%, Buddhist 7.8%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 4.7% (2011 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 22.41% (male 53,653/female 50,446)
15-24 years: 16.14% (male 37,394/female 37,559)
25-54 years: 47.21% (male 103,991/female 115,291)
55-64 years: 8.34% (male 19,159/female 19,585)
65 years and over: 5.9% (male 13,333/female 14,067) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 38.7
youth dependency ratio: 31
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 12.9 (2020 est.)

Median age:

total: 31.1 years
male: 30.5 years
female: 31.8 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

Population growth rate:

1.51% (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69

Birth rate:

16.5 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103

Death rate:

3.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215

Net migration rate:

2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41


urban population: 78.3% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

241,000 BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) (2011)
note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

31 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Infant mortality rate:

total: 8.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 77.9 years
male: 75.5 years
female: 80.4 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70

Total fertility rate:

1.75 children born/woman (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158

Drinking water source:

improved: total: 100% of population
unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure:

2.4% (2017)

Physicians density:

1.61 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density:

2.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:


HIV/AIDS - deaths:


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

14.1% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 129

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

9.6% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 65

Education expenditures:

4.4% of GDP (2016)
country comparison to the world: 81


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.2%
male: 98.1%
female: 93.4% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 28.9%
male: 28.4%
female: 29.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37


Country name:

conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
local short form: Brunei
etymology: derivation of the name is unclear; according to legend, MUHAMMAD SHAH, who would become the first sultan of Brunei, upon discovering what would become Brunei exclaimed "Baru nah," which roughly translates as "there" or "that's it"

Government type:

absolute monarchy or sultanate


name: Bandar Seri Begawan
geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: named in 1970 after Sultan Omar Ali SAIFUDDIEN III (1914-1986; "The Father of Independence") who adopted the title of "Seri Begawan" (approximate meaning "honored lord") upon his abdication in 1967; "bandar" in Malay means "town" or "city"; the capital had previously been called Bandar Brunei (Brunei Town)

Administrative divisions:

4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei dan Muara, Temburong, Tutong


1 January 1984 (from the UK)

National holiday:

National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection; the Sultan's birthday, 15 June


history: drafted 1954 to 1959, signed 29 September 1959; note - some constitutional provisions suspended since 1962 under a State of Emergency, others suspended since independence in 1984
amendments: proposed by the monarch; passage requires submission to the Privy Council for Legislative Council review and finalization takes place by proclamation; the monarch can accept or reject changes to the original proposal provided by the Legislative Council; amended several times

Legal system:

mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; note - in April 2019, the full sharia penal codes came into force and apply to Muslims and non-Muslims in parallel with present common law codes

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICC


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Brunei
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 12 years


18 years of age for village elections; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; note - 4 additional advisory councils appointed by the monarch are the Religious Council, Privy Council for constitutional issues, Council of Succession, and Legislative Council
elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary

Legislative branch:

description: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Mesyuarat Negara Brunei (36 seats; members appointed by the sultan including 3 ex-officio members - the speaker and first and second secretaries; members appointed for 5-year terms)
elections: appointed by the sultan
election results: NA; composition - men 33, women 3, percent of women 8.3%

Judicial branch:

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court (consists the Court of Appeals and the High Court); note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council (in London) serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court judges appointed by the monarch for life
subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrates' Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts

Political parties and leaders:

National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]
note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Serbini ALI (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Emily M. FLECKNER (since 20 August 2020)
telephone: [673] 238-4616
embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Duta, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
FAX: [673] 238-4604

Flag description:

yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"

National symbol(s):

royal parasol; national colors: yellow, white, black

National anthem:

name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap
note: adopted 1951


Economic overview:

Brunei is an energy-rich sultanate on the northern coast of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Brunei boasts a well-educated, largely English-speaking population; excellent infrastructure; and a stable government intent on attracting foreign investment. Crude oil and natural gas production account for approximately 65% of GDP and 95% of exports, with Japan as the primary export market. ++ Per capita GDP is among the highest in the world, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic hydrocarbon production. Bruneian citizens pay no personal income taxes, and the government provides free medical services and free education through the university level. ++ The Bruneian Government wants to diversify its economy away from hydrocarbon exports to other industries such as information and communications technology and halal manufacturing, permissible under Islamic law. Brunei's trade increased in 2016 and 2017, following its regional economic integration in the ASEAN Economic Community, and the expected ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement.

GDP real growth rate:

1.3% (2017 est.)
-2.5% (2016 est.)
-0.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

-0.2% (2017 est.)
-0.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

GDP (purchasing power parity) - real:

$33.87 billion (2017 est.)
$33.42 billion (2016 est.)
$34.27 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$12.13 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$78,900 (2017 est.)
$79,000 (2016 est.)
$82,200 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 10

Gross national saving:

47.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
50.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
51.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 1.2% (2017 est.)
industry: 56.6% (2017 est.)
services: 42.3% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 25% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 24.8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 32.6% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 8.5% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -36.8% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores:

70.1 (2020)

Agriculture - products:

rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs


petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, aquaculture, transportation

Industrial production growth rate:

1.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142

Labor force:

203,600 (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 62.8%
services: 33% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:

6.9% (2017 est.)
6.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Population below poverty line:


Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA


revenues: 2.245 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.345 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

18.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-17.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 218

Public debt:

2.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
3% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207

Fiscal year:

1 April - 31 March

Current account balance:

$2.021 billion (2017 est.)
$1.47 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40


$5.885 billion (2017 est.)
$5.023 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113

Exports - partners:

Japan 27.8%, South Korea 12.4%, Thailand 11.5%, Malaysia 11.3%, India 9.3%, Singapore 7.7%, Switzerland 5%, China 4.7% (2017)

Exports - commodities:

mineral fuels, organic chemicals


$2.998 billion (2017 est.)
$2.658 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153

Imports - commodities:

machinery and mechanical appliance parts, mineral fuels, motor vehicles, electric machinery

Imports - partners:

China 19.6%, Singapore 19%, Malaysia 18.8%, US 9.2%, Germany 5.9%, Japan 4.1%, UK 4% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$3.488 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.366 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Debt - external:

$0 (2014)
$0 (2013)
note: public external debt only; private external debt unavailable
country comparison to the world: 204

Exchange rates:

Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -
1.33685 (2020 est.)
1.35945 (2019 est.)
1.3699 (2018 est.)
1.3749 (2014 est.)
1.267 (2013 est.)


Electricity access:

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity - production:

4.014 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Electricity - consumption:

3.771 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

821,000 kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179

Crude oil - production:

100,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Crude oil - exports:

127,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Crude oil - imports:

160 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Crude oil - proved reserves:

1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Refined petroleum products - production:

10,310 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

18,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Refined petroleum products - exports:

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135

Refined petroleum products - imports:

6,948 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159

Natural gas - production:

12.74 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Natural gas - consumption:

3.936 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66

Natural gas - exports:

8.268 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - proved reserves:

260.5 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

10.04 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107


Telephones - fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 91,415
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19.98 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141

Telephones - mobile cellular:

total subscriptions: 588,616
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128.65 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

Telecommunication systems:

general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US; lots of investment given the high GDP per capita; launch of 5G in 2021 anticipated; while fixed-line is slowing down, mobile broadband has taken over in the advancement in the telecoms access market; broadband penetration slow to moderate growth predicted over the next five years to 2023 (2020)
domestic: every service available; 20 per 100 fixed-line, 129 per 100 mobile-cellular (2019)
international: country code - 673; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3, SJC, AAG, Lubuan-Brunei Submarine Cable via optical telecommunications submarine cables that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media:

state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters

Internet country code:


Internet users:

total: 426,234
percent of population: 94.6% (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Broadband - fixed subscriptions:

total: 49,452
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135


National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,234,455 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 129.35 million mt-km (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

V8 (2016)


1 (2020)
country comparison to the world: 215

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 1 (2019)
over 3,047 m: 1


3 (2013)


33 km condensate, 86 km condensate/gas, 628 km gas, 492 km oil (2013)


total: 2,976 km (2014)
paved: 2,559 km (2014)
unpaved: 417 km (2014)
country comparison to the world: 162


209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong Rivers are major transport links) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 96

Merchant marine:

total: 104
by type: general cargo 18, oil tanker 2, other 84 (2019)
country comparison to the world: 89

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Muara
oil terminal(s): Lumut, Seria
LNG terminal(s) (export): Lumut

Military and Security

Military and security forces:

Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Force, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (2019)

Military expenditures:

3.3% of GDP (2019)
2.6% of GDP (2018)
2.9% of GDP (2017)
3.5% of GDP (2016)
3.3% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 21

Military and security service personnel strengths:

the Royal Brunei Armed Forces is comprised of approximately 6,800 total active troops (4,500 Army; 1,200 Navy; 1,100 Air Force) (2019)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:

the Royal Brunei Armed Forces imports nearly all of its military equipment and weapons systems; the top suppliers since 2010 are France, Germany, and the US (2019 est.)

Military service age and obligation:

17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2019)

Military - note:

Brunei has a long-standing defense relationship with the United Kingdom and hosts a British Army garrison, which includes a Gurkha battalion and a jungle warfare school; there is also a long-term Singaporean military presence (2019)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:

per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

stateless persons: 20,863 (2019); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning land

Illicit drugs:

drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty