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Denmark :: Europe



Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the EU's Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union, European defense cooperation, and issues concerning certain justice and home affairs.



Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes several major islands (Sjaelland, Fyn, and Bornholm)

Geographic coordinates:

56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references:



total: 43,094 sq km
land: 42,434 sq km
water: 660 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
country comparison to the world: 133

Area - comparative:

slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts; about two-thirds the size of West Virginia

Land boundaries:

total: 140 km
border countries (1): Germany 140 km


7,314 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers


low and flat to gently rolling plains


mean elevation: 34 m
lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Mollehoj/Ejer Bavnehoj 171 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, fish, arable land, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand

Land use:

agricultural land: 63.4% (2011 est.)
arable land: 58.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 4.4% (2011 est.)
forest: 12.9% (2011 est.)
other: 23.7% (2011 est.)
note: highest percentage of arable land for any country in the world

Irrigated land:

4,350 sq km (2012)

Population distribution:

with excellent access to the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Baltic Sea, population centers tend to be along coastal areas, particularly in Copenhagen and the eastern side of the country's mainland

Natural hazards:

flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment - current issues:

air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides; much of country's household and industrial waste is recycled

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

composed of the Jutland Peninsula and a group of more than 400 islands (Danish Archipelago); controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen

People and Society


5,869,410 (July 2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115


noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups:

Danish (includes Greenlandic (who are predominantly Inuit) and Faroese) 86.3%, Turkish 1.1%, other 12.6% (largest groups are Polish, Syrian, German, Iraqi, and Romanian) (2018 est.)
note: data represent population by ancestry


Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language


Evangelical Lutheran (official) 74.7%, Muslim 5.5%, other/none/unspecified (denominations of less than 1% each in descending order of size include Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Serbian Orthodox Christian, Jewish, Baptist, Buddhist, Mormon, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Christian) 19.8% (2019 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 16.42% (male 494,806/female 469,005)
15-24 years: 12.33% (male 370,557/female 352,977)
25-54 years: 38.71% (male 1,149,991/female 1,122,016)
55-64 years: 12.63% (male 370,338/female 371,149)
65 years and over: 19.91% (male 538,096/female 630,475) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 57.3
youth dependency ratio: 25.6
elderly dependency ratio: 31.7
potential support ratio: 3.2 (2020 est.)

Median age:

total: 42 years
male: 40.9 years
female: 43.1 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Population growth rate:

0.48% (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156

Birth rate:

11.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177

Death rate:

9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45

Net migration rate:

2.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Population distribution:

with excellent access to the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Baltic Sea, population centers tend to be along coastal areas, particularly in Copenhagen and the eastern side of the country's mainland


urban population: 88.1% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 0.51% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

1.346 million COPENHAGEN (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

29.2 years (2017 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

4 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172

Infant mortality rate:

total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 81.2 years
male: 79.3 years
female: 83.3 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35

Total fertility rate:

1.78 children born/woman (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150

Drinking water source:

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure:

10.1% (2017)

Physicians density:

4.01 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density:

2.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access:

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

6,200 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

<100 (2018 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

19.7% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 109

Education expenditures:

7.8% of GDP (2017)
country comparison to the world: 6

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 18 years
male: 19 years
female: 19 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 9.4%
male: 10.5%
female: 8.2% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130


Country name:

conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark
etymology: the name derives from the words "Dane(s)" and "mark"; the latter referring to a march (borderland) or forest

Government type:

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Copenhagen
geographic coordinates: 55 40 N, 12 35 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October; note - applies to continental Denmark only, not to its North Atlantic components
etymology: name derives from the city's Danish appellation Kobenhavn, meaning "Merchant's Harbor" ++

Administrative divisions:

metropolitan Denmark - 5 regions (regioner, singular - region); Hovedstaden (Capital), Midtjylland (Central Jutland), Nordjylland (North Jutland), Sjaelland (Zealand), Syddanmark (Southern Denmark)


ca. 965 (unified and Christianized under HARALD I Gormsson); 5 June 1849 (became a parliamentary constitutional monarchy)

National holiday:

Constitution Day, 5 June (1849); note - closest equivalent to a national holiday


history: several previous; latest adopted 5 June 1953
amendments: proposed by the Folketing with consent of the government; passage requires approval by the next Folketing following a general election, approval by simple majority vote of at least 40% of voters in a referendum, and assent of the chief of state; changed several times, last in 2009 (Danish Act of Succession)

Legal system:

civil law; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Denmark
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK (elder son of the monarch, born on 26 May 1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Mette FREDERIKSEN (since 27 June 2019)
cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch

Legislative branch:

description: unicameral People's Assembly or Folketing (179 seats, including 2 each representing Greenland and the Faroe Islands; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms unless the Folketing is dissolved earlier)
elections: last held on 5 June 2019 (next to be held on June 2023)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 25.9%, V 23.4%, DF 8.7%, SLP 8.6%, SF 7.7%, EL 6.9%, C 6.6%, A 3.0%, NB 2.4%, LA 2.3%; seats by party - SDP 48, V 43, DF 16, SLP 16, SF 14, EL 13, C 12, A 5, NB 4, LA 4; composition - men 109, women 70 (includes 2 from Greenland), percent of women 39.1%

Judicial branch:

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 18 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Minister of Justice, with the advice of the Judicial Appointments Council, a 6-member independent body of judges and lawyers; judges appointed for life with retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Special Court of Indictment and Revision; 2 High Courts; Maritime and Commercial Court; county courts

Political parties and leaders:

The Alternative A or AP (vacant) ++ Conservative People's Party or DKF or C [Soren PAPE POULSEN] ++ Danish People's Party or DF or O [Kristian THULESEN DAHL] ++ Liberal Alliance or LA [Alex VANOPSLAGH] ++ Liberal Party (Venstre) or V [Jakob ELLEMAN-JENSEN] ++ New Right Party or D or NB [Pernille VERMUND] ++ Red-Green Alliance (Unity List) or EL [collective leadership, Pernille SKIPPER, spokesperson] ++ Social Democrats or A or SDP [Mette FREDERIKSEN] ++ Social Liberal Party or B or SLP [Sofie CARSTEN] ++ Socialist People's Party or SF [Pia OLSEN DYHR]

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Lone Dencker WISBORG (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, Palo Alto (CA)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Carla SANDS (since 15 December 2017)
telephone: [45] 33 41 71 00
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen 0
mailing address: Unit 5280 ODC, DPO AE 09716
FAX: [45] 35 43 02 23

Flag description:

red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side; the banner is referred to as the Dannebrog (Danish flag) and is one of the oldest national flags in the world; traditions as to the origin of the flag design vary, but the best known is a legend that the banner fell from the sky during an early-13th century battle; caught up by the Danish king before it ever touched the earth, this heavenly talisman inspired the royal army to victory; in actuality, the flag may derive from a crusade banner or ensign
note: the shifted cross design element was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

National symbol(s):

lion, mute swan; national colors: red, white

National anthem:

name: "Der er et yndigt land" (There is a Lovely Country); "Kong Christian" (King Christian)
lyrics/music: Adam Gottlob OEHLENSCHLAGER/Hans Ernst KROYER; Johannes EWALD/unknown
note: Denmark has two national anthems with equal status; "Der er et yndigt land," adopted 1844, is a national anthem, while "Kong Christian," adopted 1780, serves as both a national and royal anthem; "Kong Christian" is also known as "Kong Christian stod ved hojen mast" (King Christian Stood by the Lofty Mast) and "Kongesangen" (The King's Anthem); within Denmark, the royal anthem is played only when royalty is present and is usually followed by the national anthem; when royalty is not present, only the national anthem is performed; outside Denmark, the royal anthem is played, unless the national anthem is requested


Economic overview:

This thoroughly modern market economy features advanced industry with world-leading firms in pharmaceuticals, maritime shipping, and renewable energy, and a high-tech agricultural sector. Danes enjoy a high standard of living, and the Danish economy is characterized by extensive government welfare measures and an equitable distribution of income. An aging population will be a long-term issue. ++ Denmark's small open economy is highly dependent on foreign trade, and the government strongly supports trade liberalization. Denmark is a net exporter of food, oil, and gas and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus, but depends on imports of raw materials for the manufacturing sector. ++ Denmark is a member of the EU but not the eurozone. Despite previously meeting the criteria to join the European Economic and Monetary Union, Denmark has negotiated an opt-out with the EU and is not required to adopt the euro. ++ Denmark is experiencing a modest economic expansion. The economy grew by 2.0% in 2016 and 2.1% in 2017. The expansion is expected to decline slightly in 2018. Unemployment stood at 5.5% in 2017, based on the national labor survey. The labor market was tight in 2017, with corporations experiencing some difficulty finding appropriately-skilled workers to fill billets. The Danish Government offers extensive programs to train unemployed persons to work in sectors that need qualified workers. ++ Denmark maintained a healthy budget surplus for many years up to 2008, but the global financial crisis swung the budget balance into deficit. Since 2014 the balance has shifted between surplus and deficit. In 2017 there was a surplus of 1.0%. The government projects a lower deficit in 2018 and 2019 of 0.7%, and public debt (EMU debt) as a share of GDP is expected to decline to 35.6% in 2018 and 34.8% in 2019. The Danish Government plans to address increasing municipal, public housing and integration spending in 2018.

GDP real growth rate:

2.85% (2019 est.)
2.18% (2018 est.)
2.83% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

0.7% (2019 est.)
0.8% (2018 est.)
1.1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

Credit ratings:

Fitch rating: AAA (2003)
Moody's rating: Aaa (1999)
Standard & Poors rating: AAA (2001)

GDP (purchasing power parity) - real:

$283.94 billion (2019 est.)
$276.073 billion (2018 est.)
$270.195 billion (2017 est.)
note: data are in 2010 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$350.037 billion (2019 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$66,351 (2019 est.)
$64,734 (2018 est.)
$63,575 (2017 est.)
note: data are in 2010 dollars
country comparison to the world: 14

Gross national saving:

28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 1.3% (2017 est.)
industry: 22.9% (2017 est.)
services: 75.8% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 48% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 25.2% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 54.5% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -47.5% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores:

85.3 (2020)

Agriculture - products:

barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish


wind turbines, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, shipbuilding and refurbishment, iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products

Industrial production growth rate:

2.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

Labor force:

2.736 million (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 18.3%
services: 79.3% (2016 est.)

Unemployment rate:

3.05% (2019 est.)
3.07% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

Population below poverty line:

13.4% (2011 est.)
note: excludes students

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 9%
highest 10%: 23.4% (2016 est.)


revenues: 172.5 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 168.9 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

53% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Public debt:

35.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 151

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Current account balance:

$30.935 billion (2019 est.)
$24.821 billion (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12


$226.589 billion (2019 est.)
$215.725 billion (2018 est.)
$208.941 billion (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Exports - partners:

Germany 15.5%, Sweden 11.6%, UK 8.2%, US 7.5%, Norway 6%, China 4.4%, Netherlands 4.4% (2017)

Exports - commodities:

wind turbines, pharmaceuticals, machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, furniture and design


$197.818 billion (2019 est.)
$193.107 billion (2018 est.)
$184.338 billion (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners:

Germany 21.3%, Sweden 11.9%, Netherlands 7.8%, China 7.1%, Norway 6.3%, Poland 4% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$75.25 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$64.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Debt - external:

$484.8 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$519.8 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25

Exchange rates:

Danish kroner (DKK) per US dollar -
6.16045 (2020 est.)
6.7506 (2019 est.)
6.5533 (2018 est.)
6.7236 (2014 est.)
5.6125 (2013 est.)


Electricity access:

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity - production:

29.84 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65

Electricity - consumption:

33.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59

Electricity - exports:

9.919 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20

Electricity - imports:

14.98 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

14.34 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

46% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

54% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

Crude oil - production:

115,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Crude oil - exports:

82,980 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36

Crude oil - imports:

98,240 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Crude oil - proved reserves:

439 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

Refined petroleum products - production:

183,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

158,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64

Refined petroleum products - exports:

133,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Refined petroleum products - imports:

109,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

Natural gas - production:

4.842 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

Natural gas - consumption:

3.115 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

Natural gas - exports:

2.237 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Natural gas - imports:

509.7 million cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65

Natural gas - proved reserves:

12.86 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

37.45 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70


Telephones - fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 1,017,009
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17.41 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74

Telephones - mobile cellular:

total subscriptions: 7,331,110
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125.5 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102

Telecommunication systems:

general assessment: excellent telephone and Internet services; Denmark's competitive telecom market has led to the country having the second highest broadband penetration rate in Europe; the fixed-line sector continues to see a decline in revenue while customers move to VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) and mobile alternatives; comprehensive LTE coverage and a fast-developing 5G segment; the government is able to offer broadband coverage in rural areas (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 17 per 100, 126 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2019)
international: country code - 45; landing points for the NSC, COBRAcable, CANTAT-3, DANICE, Havfrue/AEC-2, TAT-14m Denmark-Norway-5 & 6, Skagenfiber West & East, GC1, GC2, GC3, GC-KPN, Kattegat 1 & 2 & 3, Energinet Lyngsa-Laeso, Energinet Laeso-Varberg, Fehmarn Balt, Baltica, German-Denmark 2 & 3, Ronne-Rodvig, Denmark-Sweden 15 & 16 & 17 & 18, IP-Only Denmark-Sweden, Scandinavian South, Scandinavian Ring North, Danica North, 34 series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, US and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East)); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media:

strong public-sector TV presence with state-owned Danmarks Radio (DR) operating 6 channels and publicly owned TV2 operating roughly a half-dozen channels; broadcasts of privately owned stations are available via satellite and cable feed; DR operates 4 nationwide FM radio stations, 10 digital audio broadcasting stations, and 14 web-based radio stations; 140 commercial and 187 community (non-commercial) radio stations (2019)

Internet country code:


Internet users:

total: 5,672,398
percent of population: 97.64% (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79

Broadband - fixed subscriptions:

total: 2,534,348
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 44 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48


National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 76
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 582,011 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

OY (2016)


80 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 68

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 28 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 12 (2017)
under 914 m: 2 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 52 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
under 914 m: 47 (2013)


1536 km gas, 330 km oil (2015)


total: 3,476 km (2017)
standard gauge: 3,476 km 1.435-m gauge (1,756 km electrified) (2017)
country comparison to the world: 57


total: 74,558 km (2017)
paved: 74,558 km (includes 1,205 km of expressways) (2017)
country comparison to the world: 67


400 km (2010)
country comparison to the world: 87

Merchant marine:

total: 682
by type: bulk carrier 7, container ship 149, general cargo 59, oil tanker 77, other 390 (2019)
country comparison to the world: 32

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Baltic Sea - Aarhus, Copenhagen, Fredericia, Kalundborg
cruise port(s): Copenhagen
river port(s): Aalborg (Langerak)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Ensted (coal)
North Sea - Esbjerg,

Military and Security

Military and security forces:

Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Danish Home Guard (Reserves) (2020)
note: the Danish military also maintains a Joint Arctic Command

Military expenditures:

1.32% of GDP (2019)
1.3% of GDP (2018)
1.15% of GDP (2017)
1.15% of GDP (2016)
1.11% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 89

Military and security service personnel strengths:

the Danish military has approximately 16,000 active duty personnel (8,500 Army; 2,500 Navy; 3,000 Air Force; 2,000 joint service, other) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:

the Danish military inventory is comprised of a mix of modern European, US, and domestically-produced equipment; the US is the largest supplier of military equipment to Denmark since 2010, followed by Germany and the Netherlands; the Danish defense industry is mainly active in the production of naval vessels, defense electronics, and subcomponents of larger weapons systems, such as the US F-35 fighter aircraft (2019 est.)

Military deployments:

110 Afghanistan (NATO); 130 Middle East/Iraq (NATO/Operation Inherent Resolve) (2020)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from 4 to 12 months depending on specialization; former conscripts are assigned to mobilization units; women eligible to volunteer for military service; in addition to full time employment, the Danish Military offers reserve contracts in all three branches (2016)

Military - note:

in 2018, the Defense Ministers of Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the creation of a Composite Special Operations Component Command (C-SOCC); the C-SOCC was declared operational in December 2020


Terrorist group(s):

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham; Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps/Qods Force (2019)
note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:

Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; sovereignty dispute with Canada over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 20,046 (Syria), 5,320 (Eritrea) (2019)
stateless persons: 8,672 (2019)