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Jordan :: Middle East



Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain demarcated a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s. The area gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The country's long-time ruler, King HUSSEIN (1953-99), successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. King HUSSEIN in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank; in 1994 he signed a peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II, King HUSSEIN's eldest son, assumed the throne following his father's death in 1999. He has implemented modest political reforms, including the passage of a new electoral law in early 2016 and an effort to devolve some authority to governorate- and municipal-level councils following subnational elections in 2017. In 2016, the Islamic Action Front, which is the political arm of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, returned to the National Assembly with 15 seats after boycotting the previous two elections in 2010 and 2013.



Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq

Geographic coordinates:

31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references:

Middle East


total: 89,342 sq km
land: 88,802 sq km
water: 540 sq km
country comparison to the world: 112

Area - comparative:

about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:

total: 1,744 km
border countries (5): Iraq 179 km, Israel 307 km, Saudi Arabia 731 km, Syria 379 km, West Bank 148 km


26 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 3 nm


mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)


mostly arid desert plateau; a great north-south geological rift along the west of the country is the dominant topographical feature and includes the Jordan River Valley, the Dead Sea, and the Jordanian Highlands


mean elevation: 812 m
lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m
highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m

Natural resources:

phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use:

agricultural land: 11.4% (2011 est.)
arable land: 2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 8.4% (2011 est.)
forest: 1.1% (2011 est.)
other: 87.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:

964 sq km (2012)

Population distribution:

population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Natural hazards:

droughts; periodic earthquakes; flash floods

Environment - current issues:

limited natural freshwater resources; declining water table; salinity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; biodiversity and ecosystem damage/loss

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank; the Dead Sea, the lowest point in Asia and the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lac Assal in Djibouti), lies on Jordan's western border with Israel and the West Bank; Jordan is almost landlocked but does have a 26 km southwestern coastline with a single port, Al 'Aqabah (Aqaba)

People and Society


10,820,644 (July 2020 est.)
note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees
country comparison to the world: 84


noun: Jordanian(s)
adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups:

Jordanian 69.3%, Syrian 13.3%, Palestinian 6.7%, Egyptian 6.7%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 2.6% (includes Armenian, Circassian) (2015 est.)
note: data represent population by self-identified nationality


Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)


Muslim 97.2% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.2% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <0.1, folk <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1, other <0.1 (2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 33.05% (male 1,837,696/female 1,738,935)
15-24 years: 19.77% (male 1,126,567/female 1,012,812)
25-54 years: 38.39% (male 2,250,328/female 1,903,996)
55-64 years: 5.11% (male 290,633/female 262,827)
65 years and over: 3.67% (male 194,464/female 202,386) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 58.2
youth dependency ratio: 52
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3
potential support ratio: 16 (2020 est.)

Median age:

total: 23.5 years
male: 23.9 years
female: 22.9 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175

Population growth rate:

1.4% (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Birth rate:

23 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Death rate:

3.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 219

Net migration rate:

-11.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217

Population distribution:

population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba


urban population: 91.4% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 2.43% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

2.148 million AMMAN (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.18 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 1.11 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

24.8 years (2017/18 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 30-34

Maternal mortality rate:

46 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Infant mortality rate:

total: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.5 years
male: 74 years
female: 77.1 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114

Total fertility rate:

3.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

51.8% (2017/18)

Drinking water source:

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 97.7% of population
total: 98.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 2.2% of population
total: 1.1% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure:

8.1% (2017)

Physicians density:

2.32 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density:

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access:

improved: urban: 98.6% of population
rural: 96.6% of population
total: 98.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.4% of population
rural: 3.7% of population
total: 1.5% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

<.1% (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

<500 (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

<100 (2018 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

35.5% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 13

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

3% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 100

Education expenditures:

3.1% of GDP (2019)
country comparison to the world: 130


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.2%
male: 98.6%
female: 97.8% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 35.6%
male: 31.5%
female: 57% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21


Country name:

conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form: Jordan
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form: Al Urdun
former: Transjordan
etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border

Government type:

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Amman
geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends last Friday in October
etymology: in the 13th century B.C., the Ammonites named their main city "Rabbath Ammon"; "rabbath" designated "capital," so the name meant "The Capital of [the] Ammon[ites]"; over time, the "Rabbath" came to be dropped and the city became known simply as "Ammon" and then "Amman"

Administrative divisions:

12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ‘Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba


25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 25 May (1946)


history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952
amendments: constitutional amendments require at least a two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; no amendment of the constitution affecting the rights of the king and the succession to the throne is permitted during the regency period; amended several times, last in 2016

Legal system:

mixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HUSSEIN (born 28 June 1994), eldest son of King ABDALLAH II
head of government: Prime Minister Bisher AL-KHASAWNEH (since 7 October 2020)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:

description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of: Senate or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms) ++ Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in 23 multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held on 10 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2024)
election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch:

highest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 members, including the chief justice); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policymaking body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure generally not limited; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Great Felonies Court; religious courts; military courts; juvenile courts; Land Settlement Courts; Income Tax Court; Higher Administrative Court; Customs Court; special courts including the State Security Court

Political parties and leaders:

Ahrar al-Urdun (Free People of Jordan) Party [Samir al-ZU'BI] ++ Al-Awn al-Watani (National Aid) Party [Faysal al-AWAR] ++ Al-Balad al-Amin Party [Khalil al-SAYED] ++ Al-Itijah al-Watani (National Trend Party) [Ahmad al-KAYED] ++ Al-Mustaqbal (Future) Party [Salah al-QUDAH] ++ Al-Nida' Party [Abd-al-Majid ABU-KHALID] ++ Al-Rayah Party (Flag Party) [Bilal DHEISAT] ++ Al-Shahama Party [Mashhour ZREIQAT] ++ Al-Shura Party [Firas al-ABBADI] ++ Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Zyad AL-HOMSI] ++ Conservatives Party [Hasan RASHID] ++ Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'eed DHIYAB] ++ Democratic Sha'b Party (HASHD) [Abla ABU-OLBEH] ++ Freedom and Equality Party [Hamad Abu ZEID] ++ Islamic Action Front [Murad AL-ADAYLAH] ++ Islamic Centrist Party [Madallah AL-TARAWNEH] ++ Jordanian Al-Ansar Party [Awni al-RJOUB] ++ Jordanian Al-Hayah Party [Abd-al-Fattah al-KILANI] ++ Jordanian Communist Party [Faraj ITMIZYEH] ++ Jordanian Democratic Socialist Party [Jamil al-NIMRI] ++ Jordanian Democratic Tabiy'ah (Nature) Party [Ali ASFOUR] ++ Jordanian Equality Party [Zuhair al-SHURAFA] ++ Jordanian Fursan (Cavaliers Party) [Ali al-DHWEIB] ++ Jordanian Justice and Development Party [Ali al-SHURAFA] ++ Jordanian National Action Party [Abd-al-Hadi al-MAHARMAH] ++ Jordanian National Constitutional Party [Ahmad al-SHUNNAQ] ++ Jordanian National Democratic Grouping Party [Shakir al-ABBADI] ++ Jordanian National Party [Muna ABU-BAKR] ++ Jordanian National Union Party [Zeid ABU-ZEID] ++ Jordanian Progressive Ba'th Party [Fu'ad DABBOUR] ++ Jordanian Promise Party [Mahmoud al-KHALILI] ++ Jordanian Reform Party [Eid DHAYYAT] ++ Jordanian Social Justice Party [Abd-al-Fattah al-NSOUR] ++ Jordanian Wafa' (Loyalty) Party [Mazin al-QADI] ++ Justice and Reform Party [Sa'eed Nathir ARABIYAT] ++ Modernity and Change Party [Nayef al-HAMAYDEH] ++ National Congress Party [Irhayil GHARAYBEH] (formerly the Zamzam party) ++ National Renaissance Front Party [Isma'il KHATATBEH] ++ National Unity Party [Muhammad al-ZBOUN] ++ Pan Arab Movement Party [Dayfallah FARRAJ] ++ Partnership and Salvation Party [Muhammad al-HAMMOURI] ++ Reform and Renewal Party [Mazin RYAL] ++ Risalah Party [Hazim QASHOU'] ++ Stronger Jordan Party [Rula al-HROUB] ++ Unified Jordanian Front Party [Farouq AL-ABBADI]

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Dina Khalil Tawiq KAWAR (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664
FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Henry T. WOOSTER (since 18 October 2020)
telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000
embassy: Abdoun, Al-Umawyeen St., Amman
mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; Unit 70200, Box 5, DPO AE 09892-0200
FAX: [962] (6) 592-0163

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I

National symbol(s):

eagle; national colors: black, white, green, red

National anthem:

name: "As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni" (Long Live the King of Jordan)
lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER
note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions


Economic overview:

Jordan's economy is among the smallest in the Middle East, with insufficient supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources, underlying the government's heavy reliance on foreign assistance. Other economic challenges for the government include chronic high rates of unemployment and underemployment, budget and current account deficits, and government debt. ++ King ABDALLAH, during the first decade of the 2000s, implemented significant economic reforms, such as expanding foreign trade and privatizing state-owned companies that attracted foreign investment and contributed to average annual economic growth of 8% for 2004 through 2008. The global economic slowdown and regional turmoil contributed to slower growth from 2010 to 2017 - with growth averaging about 2.5% per year - and hurt export-oriented sectors, construction/real estate, and tourism. Since the onset of the civil war in Syria and resulting refugee crisis, one of Jordan's most pressing socioeconomic challenges has been managing the influx of approximately 660,000 UN-registered refugees, more than 80% of whom live in Jordan's urban areas. Jordan's own official census estimated the refugee number at 1.3 million Syrians as of early 2016. ++ Jordan is nearly completely dependent on imported energy—mostly natural gas—and energy consistently makes up 25-30% of Jordan's imports. To diversify its energy mix, Jordan has secured several contracts for liquefied and pipeline natural gas, developed several major renewables projects, and is currently exploring nuclear power generation and exploitation of abundant oil shale reserves. In August 2016, Jordan and the IMF agreed to a $723 million Extended Fund Facility that aims to build on the three-year, $2.1 billion IMF program that ended in August 2015 with the goal of helping Jordan correct budgetary and balance of payments imbalances.

GDP real growth rate:

2% (2019 est.)
1.94% (2018 est.)
2.12% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

0.3% (2019 est.)
4.4% (2018 est.)
3.3% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Credit ratings:

Fitch rating: BB- (2019)
Moody's rating: B1 (2013)
Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2017)

GDP (purchasing power parity) - real:

$89 billion (2017 est.)
$58.215 billion (2017 est.)
$87.28 billion (2016 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$44.568 billion (2019 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$3,291 (2019 est.)
$3,271 (2018 est.)
$3,268 (2017 est.)
note: data are in 2010 dollars
country comparison to the world: 176

Gross national saving:

9.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 4.5% (2017 est.)
industry: 28.8% (2017 est.)
services: 66.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 80.5% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 19.8% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 22.8% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 34.2% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -58% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores:

84.5 (2020)

Agriculture - products:

citrus, tomatoes, cucumbers, olives, strawberries, stone fruits; sheep, poultry, dairy


tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizer, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:

1.4% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146

Labor force:

731,000 (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2%
industry: 20%
services: 78% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate:

19.1% (2019 est.)
18.61% (2018 est.)
note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%
country comparison to the world: 187

Population below poverty line:

14.2% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)


revenues: 9.462 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 11.51 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

23.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-5.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170

Public debt:

95.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
95.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 22

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Current account balance:

-$1.222 billion (2019 est.)
-$2.964 billion (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152


$13.109 billion (2018 est.)
$12.718 billion (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

Exports - partners:

US 24.9%, Saudi Arabia 12.8%, India 8.2%, Iraq 8.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, UAE 4.6% (2017)

Exports - commodities:

textiles, fertilizers, potash, phosphates, vegetables, pharmaceuticals


$19.669 billion (2018 est.)
$19.353 billion (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

Imports - commodities:

crude oil, refined petroleum products, machinery, transport equipment, iron, cereals

Imports - partners:

China 13.6%, Saudi Arabia 13.6%, US 9.9%, UAE 4.9%, Germany 4.4% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$15.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$15.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Debt - external:

$29.34 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$26.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Exchange rates:

Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar -
0.709 (2020 est.)
0.709 (2019 est.)
0.70925 (2018 est.)
0.71 (2014 est.)
0.71 (2013 est.)


Electricity access:

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity - production:

18.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Electricity - consumption:

16.82 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74

Electricity - exports:

50 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

Electricity - imports:

334 million kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

4.764 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74

Crude oil - production:

22 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99

Crude oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Crude oil - imports:

67,980 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49

Crude oil - proved reserves:

1 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Refined petroleum products - production:

67,240 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

139,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69

Refined petroleum products - exports:

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166

Refined petroleum products - imports:

68,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Natural gas - production:

121.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Natural gas - consumption:

5.238 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Natural gas - exports:

1.359 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Natural gas - imports:

6.456 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Natural gas - proved reserves:

6.031 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

27.39 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76


Telephones - fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 375,576
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3.52 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Telephones - mobile cellular:

total subscriptions: 8,215,735
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Telecommunication systems:

general assessment: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services; recent influx of refugees putting burden on country's economy, infrastructure and society; mobile broadband is area of growth with 4G services; govt. recently launched Ministry of Digital Economy & Entrepreneurship; preparing for next wave of development with 5G and IoT/MsM services (2020)
domestic: 1995 a telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, the monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently fixed-line 4 per 100 persons and multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership up to 77 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 962; landing point for the FEA and Taba-Aqaba submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Asia; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media:

radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available

Internet country code:


Internet users:

total: 6,985,174
percent of population: 66.79% (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71

Broadband - fixed subscriptions:

total: 399,596
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90


National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 54
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,383,805 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 175.84 million mt-km (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

JY (2016)


18 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 139

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 16 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 8 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)


1 (2012)


473 km gas, 49 km oil (2013)


total: 509 km (2014)
narrow gauge: 509 km 1.050-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 113


total: 7,203 km (2011)
paved: 7,203 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 141

Merchant marine:

total: 32
by type: general cargo 7, oil tanker 1, other 24 (2019)
country comparison to the world: 129

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah

Military and Security

Military and security forces:

Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Army (includes Special Operations Forces, Border Guards, Royal Guard), Royal Jordanian Navy, Royal Jordanian Air Force; Ministry of Interior: General Directorate of Gendarmerie Forces, Public Security Directorate (2020)

Military expenditures:

4.7% of GDP (2019)
4.7% of GDP (2018)
4.8% of GDP (2017)
4.6% of GDP (2016)
4.3% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 8

Military and security service personnel strengths:

the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) have approximately 101,000 active personnel (87,000 Army; 500 Navy; 14,000 Air Force); est. 15,000 Gendarmerie Forces (2019)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:

the JAF inventory is comprised of a wide mix of imported weapons, mostly second-hand equipment from Europe and the US; some of the equipment is received from third-party suppliers such as the United Arab Emirates; since 2010, the Netherlands and the US are the leading suppliers of military hardware to Jordan (2019)

Military service age and obligation:

17 years of age for voluntary male military service; initial service term 2 years, with option to reenlist for 18 years; conscription at age 18 suspended in 1999; women are not conscripted, but can volunteer to serve in noncombat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab Army Women's Corps and RJAF (2013)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:

2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Syria pending demarcation

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 2,272,411 (Palestinian refugees), 661,997 (Syria), 66,835 (Iraq), 14,640 (Yemen), 6,098 Sudan (2020)