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Kyrgyzstan :: Central Asia

Introduction

Background:

A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of present-day Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Former Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV overwhelmingly won the presidential election in the summer of 2005. Over the next few years, he manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for the presidency. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won reelection in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, violent protests in Bishkek led to the collapse of the BAKIEV regime and his eventual flight to Minsk, Belarus. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011, marking the first peaceful transfer of presidential power in independent Kyrgyzstan's history. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.
Under the 2010 Constitution, ATAMBAEV is limited to one term, which will end in 2017. Constitutional amendments passed in a referendum in December 2016 include language that transfers some presidential powers to the prime minister. Disagreement over the constitutional amendments compelled ATAMBAEV’s ruling Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan to dissolve and create a new majority coalition in the Jogorku Kengesh that excluded opposition parties critical of the amendments.

Geography

Location:

Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates:

41 00 N, 75 00 E

Map references:

Asia

Area:

total: 199,951 sq km
land: 191,801 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries:

total: 4,573 km
border countries (4): China 1,063 km, Kazakhstan 1,212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,314 km

Coastline:

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)

Climate:

dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

Terrain:

peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country

Elevation:

mean elevation: 2,988 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m

Natural resources:

abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

Land use:

agricultural land: 55.4%
arable land 6.7%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 48.3%
forest: 5.1%
other: 39.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:

10,233 sq km (2012)

Population - distribution:

the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains

Natural hazards:

NA

Environment - current issues:

water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes

People and Society

Population:

5,727,553 (July 2016 est.)

Nationality:

noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Ethnic groups:

Kyrgyz 70.9%, Uzbek 14.3%, Russian 7.7%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.9% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2009 est.)

Languages:

Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)

Religions:

Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%

Age structure:

0-14 years: 30.12% (male 883,875/female 841,362)
15-24 years: 17.47% (male 508,656/female 492,046)
25-54 years: 39.68% (male 1,112,777/female 1,159,967)
55-64 years: 7.59% (male 189,684/female 245,202)
65 years and over: 5.13% (male 112,494/female 181,490) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 55.3%
youth dependency ratio: 48.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6%
potential support ratio: 15.2% (2015 est.)

Median age:

total: 26.2 years
male: 25.2 years
female: 27.3 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.09% (2016 est.)

Birth rate:

22.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate:

6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate:

-5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution:

the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains

Urbanization:

urban population: 35.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.58% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

BISHKEK (capital) 865,000 (2015)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

23.3 (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

76 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 26.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 70.7 years
male: 66.5 years
female: 75.1 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.64 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

36.3% (2012)

Health expenditures:

6.5% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density:

1.97 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density:

4.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source:

improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 86.2% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 13.8% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:
urban: 89.1% of population
rural: 95.6% of population
total: 93.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.9% of population
rural: 4.4% of population
total: 6.7% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.22% (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

8,100 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

200 (2015 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

13.3% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

2.8% (2014)

Education expenditures:

5.5% of GDP (2014)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.4% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 563,920
percentage: 40.3%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 13.4%
male: 12%
female: 15.8% (2013 est.)

Government

Country name:

conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: Kyrgyzstan
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "kyrg" (forty) and "-yz" (tribes) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) creating the meaning "Land of the forty tribes"; the name refers to the forty clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS

Government type:

parliamentary republic

Capital:

name: Bishkek
geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence:

31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 31 August (1991)

Constitution:

previous 1993; latest adopted 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010 (2016)

Legal system:

civil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship:

citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (since 13 April 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president
election results: Almazbek ATAMBAEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAEV (SDPK) 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (All Kyrgyzstan) 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIEV (Homeland) 14.3%, other 7.8%; Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected prime minister; Supreme Council vote - 115 to 0

Legislative branch:

description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - SDPK 27.4%, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 20.1%, Kyrgyzstan Party 12.9%, Onuguu-Progress 9.3%, Bir Bol 8.5%, Ata-Meken 7.8%, other 14%; seats by party - SDPK 38, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 28, Kyrgyzstan Party 18, Onuguu-Progress 13, Bir Bol 12, Ata-Meken 11

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts

Political parties and leaders:

Ata-Jurt-Respublika (Homeland-Republic) [Omurbek BABANOV, Kamchybek TASHIEV]
Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]
Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAIMANOV]
Kyrgyzstan Party [Kanatbek ISAEV, Kanybek IMANALIEV]
Onuguu-Progress [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA]
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
Union of True Muslims [Nurlan MOTUEV]

International organization participation:

ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Kadyr TOKTOGULOV (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822-23
FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Sheila GWALTNEY (14 October 2015)
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
FAX: [996] (312) 551-264

Flag description:

red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth

National symbol(s):

gyrfalcon; national colors: red, yellow

National anthem:

name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV
note: adopted 1992

Economy

Economy - overview:

Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with Canadian investors in the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers in Russia and Kazakhstan are equivalent to about a quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.
Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly carried out market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis and declining oil prices have damaged economies across Central Asia.
Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations continue to hamper economic growth. The keys to future growth include progress in fighting corruption, improving administrative transparency, restructuring domestic industry, and attracting foreign aid and investment.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$21.01 billion (2016 est.)
$20.55 billion (2015 est.)
$19.87 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$5.794 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

2.2% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$3,500 (2016 est.)
$3,400 (2015 est.)
$3,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving:

18.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 77.9%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 2.5%
exports of goods and services: 30.6%
imports of goods and services: -55% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 17.9%
industry: 25.9%
services: 56.2% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products:

cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool

Industries:

small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals

Industrial production growth rate:

0% (2016 est.)

Labor force:

2.778 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 48%
industry: 12.5%
services: 39.5% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:

8% (2013 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line:

33.7% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 27.8% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

33.4 (2007)
29 (2001)

Budget:

revenues: $2.04 billion
expenditures: $2.354 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

35.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-5.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt:

69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.9% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

13.73% (22 December 2011)
2.5% (31 December 2010)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

23.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
24.25% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$1.179 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$928.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money:

$1.333 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.399 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$980.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$831.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$165 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$165 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$79 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance:

-$867 million (2016 est.)
-$692 million (2015 est.)

Exports:

$1.453 billion (2016 est.)
$1.61 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities:

gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes

Exports - partners:

Switzerland 26%, Uzbekistan 22.6%, Kazakhstan 20.8%, UAE 4.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Afghanistan 4.5%, Russia 4.2% (2015)

Imports:

$3.146 billion (2016 est.)
$3.648 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities:

oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:

China 56.4%, Russia 17.1%, Kazakhstan 9.9% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$1.838 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.778 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external:

$7.728 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.37 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$4.897 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.347 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$331.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$331.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates:

soms (KGS) per US dollar -
69.08 (2016 est.)
64.462 (2015 est.)
64.462 (2014 est.)
53.654 (2013 est.)
47.01 (2012 est.)

Energy

Electricity - production:

14 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption:

11 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports:

72 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports:

300 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

3.9 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

21.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

78.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production:

1,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports:

19.65 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves:

40 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production:

1,571 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

37,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports:

3,070 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports:

35,710 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production:

34 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:

429 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports:

395 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:

5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

9.4 million Mt (2013 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 408,037
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

total: 7.579 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system:

general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links
domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership up to about 130 per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsa (2015)

Broadcast media:

state-run TV broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations (2007)

Internet country code:

.kg

Internet users:

total: 1.713 million
percent of population: 30.2% (July 2015 est.)

Transportation

National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 625,294
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 69,290 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

EX (2016)

Airports:

28 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Pipelines:

gas 480 km; oil 16 km (2013)

Railways:

total: 470 km
broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)

Roadways:

total: 34,000 km (2007)

Waterways:

600 km (2010)

Ports and terminals:

lake port(s): Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)(Lake Ysyk-Kol)

Military and Security

Military branches:

State Committee on Defense Affairs (GKDO): Ground Forces, Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces) (2015)

Military service age and obligation:

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2013)

Military expenditures:

3.74% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:

Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

stateless persons: 9,118 (2015); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgyzstan, have lived there many years, or married Kyrgyz citizens; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits

Illicit drugs:

limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates