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Mongolia :: East & Southeast Asia



The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing Empire in 1911 and achieved limited autonomy until 1919, when it again came under Chinese control. The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 ended Chinese dominance, and a communist regime, the Mongolian People's Republic, took power in 1924. ++ The modern country of Mongolia, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; today, more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Since the country's peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) - which took the name Mongolian People's Party (MPP) in 2010 - has competed for political power with the Democratic Party (DP) and several other smaller parties, including a new party formed by former President ENKHBAYAR, which confusingly adopted for itself the MPRP name. In the country's most recent parliamentary elections in June 2016, Mongolians handed the MPP overwhelming control of Parliament, largely pushing out the DP, which had overseen a sharp decline in Mongolia's economy during its control of Parliament in the preceding years. Mongolians elected a DP member, Khaltmaa BATTULGA, as president in 2017.



Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates:

46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references:



total: 1,564,116 sq km
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km
country comparison to the world: 20

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Alaska; more than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:

total: 8,082 km
border countries (2): China 4630 km, Russia 3452 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)


desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)


vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central


mean elevation: 1,528 m
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Khuiten Peak) 4,374 m

Natural resources:

oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron

Land use:

agricultural land: 73% (2011 est.)
arable land: 0.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 72.6% (2011 est.)
forest: 7% (2011 est.)
other: 20% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:

840 sq km (2012)

Population distribution:

sparsely distributed population throughout the country; the capital of Ulaanbaatar and the northern city of Darhan support the highest population densities

Natural hazards:

dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions

Environment - current issues:

limited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws leads to air pollution in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation and overgrazing increase soil erosion from wind and rain; water pollution; desertification and mining activities have a deleterious effect on the environment

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

People and Society


3,168,026 (July 2020 est.)
note: Mongolia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world (2 people per sq km); twice as many ethnic Mongols (some 6 million) live in Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol) in neighboring China
country comparison to the world: 135


noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups:

Khalkh 84.5%, Kazak 3.9%, Dorvod 2.4%, Bayad 1.7%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.3%, Zakhchin 1%, other 5.2% (2015 est.)


Mongolian 90% (official) (Khalkha dialect is predominant), Turkic, Russian (1999)


Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Shamanist 2.9%, Christian 2.2%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 26.96% (male 435,596/female 418,524)
15-24 years: 14.93% (male 239,495/female 233,459)
25-54 years: 45.29% (male 694,481/female 740,334)
55-64 years: 8.04% (male 115,560/female 139,129)
65 years and over: 4.78% (male 60,966/female 90,482) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 54.8
youth dependency ratio: 48.1
elderly dependency ratio: 6.7
potential support ratio: 15 (2020 est.)

Median age:

total: 29.8 years
male: 28.8 years
female: 30.7 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126

Population growth rate:

0.99% (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104

Birth rate:

16.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Death rate:

6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151

Net migration rate:

-0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135

Population distribution:

sparsely distributed population throughout the country; the capital of Ulaanbaatar and the northern city of Darhan support the highest population densities


urban population: 68.7% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

1.584 million ULAANBAATAR (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

20.5 years (2008 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 20-24

Maternal mortality rate:

45 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Infant mortality rate:

total: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 70.8 years
male: 66.6 years
female: 75.2 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164

Total fertility rate:

1.95 children born/woman (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

48.1% (2018)

Drinking water source:

improved: urban: 97.6% of population
rural: 59.2% of population
total: 85.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.4% of population
rural: 40.8% of population
total: 14.6% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure:

4% (2017)

Physicians density:

2.86 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density:

8 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access:

improved: urban: 96.4% of population
rural: 65.1% of population
total: 86.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.6% of population
rural: 34.9% of population
total: 13.5% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

<.1% (2019 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

<1000 (2019 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

<100 (2019 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

20.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 96

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

1.9% (2018)
country comparison to the world: 113

Education expenditures:

4.1% of GDP (2017)
country comparison to the world: 94


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 98.6% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2015)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 16.8%
male: 15.8%
female: 18.4% (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80


Country name:

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia, Mongolian People's Republic
etymology: the name means "Land of the Mongols" in Latin; the Mongolian name Mongol Uls translates as "Mongol State"

Government type:

semi-presidential republic


name: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
note: Mongolia has two time zones - Ulaanbaatar Time (8 hours in advance of UTC) and Hovd Time (7 hours in advance of UTC) ++ etymology: the name means "red hero" in Mongolian and honors national hero Damdin Sukhbaatar, leader of the partisan army that with Soviet Red Army help, liberated Mongolia from Chinese occupation in the early 1920s

Administrative divisions:

21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs


29 December 1911 (independence declared from China; in actuality, autonomy attained); 11 July 1921 (from China)

National holiday:

Naadam (games) holiday (commemorates independence from China in the 1921 Revolution), 11-15 July; Constitution Day (marks the date that the Mongolian People's Republic was created under a new constitution), 26 November (1924)


history: several previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992
amendments: proposed by the State Great Hural, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition submitted to the State Great Hural by the Constitutional Court; conducting referenda on proposed amendments requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the State Great Hural; passage of amendments by the State Great Hural requires at least three-quarters majority vote; passage by referendum requires majority participation of qualified voters and a majority of votes; amended 1999, 2000, 2019

Legal system:

civil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Mongolia; one parent if born within Mongolia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Khaltmaa BATTULGA (since 10 July 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH (since 4 October 2017; re-elected by the Parliament 2 July 2020); Deputy Prime Minister Ulziisaikhan ENKHTUVSHIN (since 18 October 2017); note - Prime Minister Jargaltulga ERDENEBAT (since 8 July 2016) was voted out of office by the Parliament on 7 September 2017
cabinet: directly appointed by the prime minister following a constitutional amendment ratified in November 2019; prior to the amendment, the cabinet was nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
elections/appointments: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in the State Great Hural and directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2017 with a runoff held 7 July 2017 (next to be held in 2021); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural
election results: Khaltmaa BATTULGA elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Khaltmaa BATTULGA (DP) 38.1%, Miyegombo ENKHBOLD (MPP) 30.3%, Sainkhuu GANBAATAR (MPRP) 30.2%, invalid 1.4%; percent of vote in second round - Khaltmaa BATTULGA 55.2%, Miyegombo ENKHBOLD 44.8%; on 2 July 2020, Prime Minister Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH was reelected prime minister by the State Great Hural

Legislative branch:

description: unicameral State Great Hural or Ulsyn Ikh Khural (76 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; each constituency requires at least 50% voter participation for the poll to be valid; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 June 2020 (next to be held in 2024)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPP 44.9%, DP 24.5%, Our Coalition 8.1%, independent 8.7%, Right Person Electorate Coalition 5.2%, other 8.5%; seats by party - MPP 62, DP 11, Our Coalition 1, Right Person Electorate Coalition 1; independent 1; composition - 63 men, 13 women; percent of women 17.1%; note - the MPRP, Civil Will-Green Party, and Mongolian Traditionally United Party formed Our Coalition for the 2020 election; the Right Person Electorate Coalition was established in 2020 by the National Labor Party, Mongolian Social Democratic Party, and Justice Party

Judicial branch:

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the Chief Justice and 24 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tsets (consists of the chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice and judges appointed by the president upon recommendation by the General Council of Courts - a 14-member body of judges and judicial officials - to the State Great Hural; appointment is for life; chairman of the Constitutional Court elected from among its members; members appointed from nominations by the State Great Hural - 3 each by the president, the State Great Hural, and the Supreme Court; appointment is 6 years; chairmanship limited to a single renewable 3-year term
subordinate courts: aimag (provincial) and capital city appellate courts; soum, inter-soum, and district courts; Administrative Cases Courts

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic Party or DP [Sodnomzundui ERDENE; resigned June 2020] ++ Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Bayanjargal TSOGTGEREL] ++ Mongolian People's Party or MPP [Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH] ++ Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR] ++ Civil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Tserendorjiin GANKHUYAG] ++ Mongolian Traditionally United Party or MTUP [Batdelgeriin BATBOLD] ++ National Labor Party or HUN [B. NAIDALAA] ++ Mongolian Social Democratic Party or MSDP [A. GANBAATAR] ++ Justice Party [B. NASANBILEG]
note - there are 36 total registered parties as of March 2020

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Yondon OTGONBAYAR (since 28 March 2018)
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael S. KLECHESKI (since 22 February 2019)
telephone: [976] 7007-6001
embassy: Denver Street #3, 11th Micro-District, Ulaanbaatar 14190
mailing address: P.O. Box 341, Ulaanbaatar 14192
FAX: [976] 7007-6016

Flag description:

three, equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity

National symbol(s):

soyombo emblem; national colors: red, blue, yellow

National anthem:

name: "Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
lyrics/music: Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ
note: music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; lyrics altered on numerous occasions


Economic overview:

Foreign direct investment in Mongolia's extractive industries – which are based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten - has transformed Mongolia's landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than 40% of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of its external trade - China receives some 90% of Mongolia's exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant. ++ Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction, and natural disasters, as well as strong economic growth, because of market reforms and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the WTO in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes. ++ Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis and Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the IMF reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and it emerged from the crisis with a stronger banking sector and better fiscal management. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, a dispute with foreign investors developing OT called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister Norovyn ALTANKHUYAG in November 2014. The economy had grown more than 10% per year between 2011 and 2013 - largely on the strength of commodity exports and high government spending - before slowing to 7.8% in 2014, and falling to the 2% level in 2015. Growth rebounded from a brief 1.6% contraction in the third quarter of 2016 to 5.8% during the first three quarters of 2017, largely due to rising commodity prices. ++ The May 2015 agreement with Rio Tinto to restart the OT mine and the subsequent $4.4 billion finance package signing in December 2015 stemmed the loss of investor confidence. The current government has made restoring investor trust and reviving the economy its top priority, but has failed to invigorate the economy in the face of the large drop-off in foreign direct investment, mounting external debt, and a sizeable budget deficit. Mongolia secured a $5.5 billion financial assistance package from the IMF and a host of international creditors in May 2017, which is expected to improve Mongolia's long-term fiscal and economic stability as long as Ulaanbaatar can advance the agreement's difficult contingent reforms, such as consolidating the government's off-balance sheet liabilities and rehabilitating the Mongolian banking sector.

GDP real growth rate:

5.1% (2017 est.)
1.2% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4.6% (2017 est.)
0.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178

Credit ratings:

Fitch rating: B (2018)
Moody's rating: B3 (2018)
Standard & Poors rating: B (2018)

GDP (purchasing power parity) - real:

$43.54 billion (2018 est.)
$39.73 billion (2017 est.)
$37.81 billion (2016 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$11.14 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$13,700 (2018)
$13,000 (2017 est.)
$12,500 (2016 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 99

Gross national saving:

26.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
23.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 12.1% (2017 est.)
industry: 38.2% (2017 est.)
services: 49.7% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 49.2% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 12.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 23.8% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 12.4% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 59.5% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -57.1% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores:

86.7 (2020)

Agriculture - products:

wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses


construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:

-1% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176

Labor force:

1.241 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 31.1%
industry: 18.5%
services: 50.5% (2016)

Unemployment rate:

8% (2017 est.)
7.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Population below poverty line:

29.6% (2016 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 13.7%
highest 10%: 5.7% (2017)


revenues: 2.967 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 3.681 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

26.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-6.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187

Public debt:

91.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
90% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Current account balance:

-$1.155 billion (2017 est.)
-$700 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149


$7.012 billion (2018)
$5.834 billion (2017 est.)
$4.916 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110

Exports - partners:

China 93.3%, UK 2.5% (2017)

Exports - commodities:

copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil


$5.875 billion (2018)
$4.345 billion (2017 est.)
$3.466 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent

Imports - partners:

China 32.6%, Russia 28.1%, Japan 8.4%, US 4.8%, South Korea 4.6% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$3.016 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.296 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Debt - external:

$25.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$24.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88

Exchange rates:

togrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar -
2,378.1 (2017 est.)
2,140.3 (2016 est.)
2,140.3 (2015 est.)
1,970.3 (2014 est.)
1,817.9 (2013 est.)


Electricity access:

electrification - total population: 91% (2019)
electrification - urban areas: 99% (2019)
electrification - rural areas: 73% (2019)

Electricity - production:

5.339 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120

Electricity - consumption:

5.932 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115

Electricity - exports:

51 million kWh (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Electricity - imports:

1.446 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

1.134 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79

Crude oil - production:

20,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66

Crude oil - exports:

14,360 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168

Crude oil - proved reserves:

NA bbl (1 January 2017)

Refined petroleum products - production:

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

27,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124

Refined petroleum products - exports:

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183

Refined petroleum products - imports:

24,190 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

19.86 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86


Telephones - fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 385,191
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12.28 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102

Telephones - mobile cellular:

total subscriptions: 4,297,643
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 137.01 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Telecommunication systems:

general assessment: liberalized and competitive telecoms market; mobile broadband seen steady growth, but fixed-line broadband is an attractive option; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services; compared to other Asian countries, Mongolia's growth in telecommunications is moderate; mobile broadband is growing with 4 competitive MNOs (mobile network operators) along with better tariffs; 3G mobile broadband products are very popular, launch of 4G LTE services by all major operators; in May 2018 a South Korean company completed the sale of 40% stake back to Mongolian government (2020)
domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity 12 per 100; there are four mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing with 137 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2016)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media:

following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are 68 radio and 160 TV stations, including multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2019)

Internet country code:


Internet users:

total: 735,823
percent of population: 23.71% (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147

Broadband - fixed subscriptions:

total: 306,150
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102


National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 670,360 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7.82 million mt-km (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

JU (2016)


44 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 98

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 15 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 29 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)


1 (2013)


total: 1,815 km (2017)
broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.520-m gauge (2017)
note: national operator Ulaanbaatar Railway is jointly owned by the Mongolian Government and by the Russian State Railway
country comparison to the world: 78


total: 113,200 km (2017)
paved: 10,600 km (2017)
unpaved: 102,600 km (2017)
country comparison to the world: 44


580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers ice free from May to September) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 81

Merchant marine:

total: 271
by type: bulk carrier 2, container ship 3, general cargo 100, oil tanker 72, other 94 (2019)
country comparison to the world: 55

Military and Security

Military and security forces:

Mongolian Armed Forces (Mongol ulsyn zevsegt huchin): Mongolian Army (includes Border Troops), Mongolian Air Force, National Center for Emergency and Disaster Relief (coordinates the military's efforts as first-responders for earthquakes, wildfires, and forest fires; contagious diseases; and snow and dust storms as well as severe winters (known as zud)); paramilitary forces: Internal Security Troops (2019)

Military expenditures:

0.7% of GDP (2019)
0.7% of GDP (2018)
0.8% of GDP (2017)
0.9% of GDP (2016)
0.9% of GDP (2015)
country comparison to the world: 138

Military and security service personnel strengths:

size estimates for the the Mongolian Armed Forces (MAF) vary; approximately 8,000 active duty troops (7,000 Army; 800 Air Force); est. 6,000 Border Guard; est. 1,200 Internal Security Troops (2019)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:

the MAF are armed with Soviet-era equipment supplemented by deliveries of second-hand Russian weapons; since 2010, Russia is the sole provider of armaments to Mongolia (2019 est.)

Military deployments:

850 South Sudan (UNMISS); 230 Afghanistan (NATO) (2020)

Military service age and obligation:

18-27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 1-year conscript service obligation in army or air forces or police for males only; after conscription, soldiers can contract into military service for 2 or 4 years; citizens can also voluntarily join the armed forces (2017)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:


Refugees and internally displaced persons:

stateless persons: 17 (2019)