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Uzbekistan :: Central Asia



Uzbekistan is the geographic and population center of Central Asia. The country has a diverse economy and a relatively young population. Russia conquered and united the disparate territories of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to the overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, leaving the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half-dry. Independent since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, the country has diversified agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base, although cotton remains a major part of its economy. Uzbekistan's first president, Islam KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. His successor, former Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, has improved relations with Uzbekistan's neighbors and introduced wide-ranging economic, judicial, and social reforms.



Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates:

41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references:



total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 58

Area - comparative:

about four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:

total: 6,893 km
border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1314 km, Tajikistan 1312 km, Turkmenistan 1793 km


0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline

Maritime claims:

none (doubly landlocked)


mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east


mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west


lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources:

natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use:

agricultural land: 62.6% (2011 est.)
arable land: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 51.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 7.7% (2011 est.)
other: 29.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:

42,150 sq km (2012)

Population distribution:

most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated

Natural hazards:

earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts

Environment - current issues:

shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

People and Society


30,565,411 (July 2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45


noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups:

Uzbek 83.8%, Tajik 4.8%, Kazakh 2.5%, Russian 2.3%, Karakalpak 2.2%, Tatar 1.5%, other 4.4% (2017 est.)


Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
note: in the autonomous Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status ++


Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Age structure:

0-14 years: 23.19% (male 3,631,693/female 3,456,750)
15-24 years: 16.63% (male 2,601,803/female 2,481,826)
25-54 years: 45.68% (male 6,955,260/female 7,006,172)
55-64 years: 8.63% (male 1,245,035/female 1,392,263)
65 years and over: 5.87% (male 768,769/female 1,025,840) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 50.6
youth dependency ratio: 43.4
elderly dependency ratio: 7.2
potential support ratio: 13.9 (2020 est.)

Median age:

total: 30.1 years
male: 29.4 years
female: 30.7 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123

Population growth rate:

0.88% (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117

Birth rate:

16.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Death rate:

5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187

Net migration rate:

-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167

Population distribution:

most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated


urban population: 50.4% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

2.517 million TASHKENT (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

23.8 years (2017 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

29 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114

Infant mortality rate:

total: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.8 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 78 years (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Total fertility rate:

1.74 children born/woman (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163

Drinking water source:

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 96.1% of population
total: 97.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 3.9% of population
total: 2.2% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure:

6.4% (2017)

Physicians density:

2.37 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density:

4 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access:

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.2% (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

50,000 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

<1000 (2019 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

16.6% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 123

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

2.9% (2017)
country comparison to the world: 102

Education expenditures:

5.3% of GDP (2017)
country comparison to the world: 47


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2016)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2019)


Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "uz" (self) and "bek" (master) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) to give the meaning "Land of the Free"

Government type:

presidential republic; highly authoritarian


name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: "tash" means "stone" and "kent" means "city" in Turkic languages, so the name simply denotes "stone city"

Administrative divisions:

12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati [Bukhara Province], Farg'ona Viloyati [Fergana Province], Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati [Samarkand Province], Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent Province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 1 September (1991)


history: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992
amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2017 (2018)

Legal system:

civil law system; note - in early 2020, the president signed an amendment to the criminal code, criminal procedure code, and code of administrative responsibility

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister/Minister of Transport Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Hotamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURODOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%

Legislative branch:

description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of: Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) ++ Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round, if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 13-14 January 2015 (next to be held in 2020) ++ Legislative Chamber - last held on 22 December 2019 and 5 January 2020 (next to be held in December 2024)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 83, women 17, percent of women 17% ++ Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, National Revival Democratic Party 36, Adolat 24, PDP 22, Ecological Movement 15; composition - NA
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV

Judicial branch:

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, and economic sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term and can be reappointed for subsequent 10-year and lifetime terms
subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts

Political parties and leaders:

Ecological Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Partivasi) [Boriy ALIKHANOV] ++ Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV] ++ Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Aktam HAITOV] ++ National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV] ++ People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or PDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Javlon VAHOBOV (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel ROSENBLUM (since 24 May 2019)
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a vertical, white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white, five-pointed stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar

National symbol(s):

khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green

National anthem:

name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics


Economic overview:

Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan's eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. ++ Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdowns in neighboring Russia and China have hurt Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsened its foreign currency shortage. Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV and election of President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, emphasis on such initiatives and government efforts to improve the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets. ++ As a part of its economic reform efforts, the Uzbek Government is looking to expand opportunities for small and medium enterprises and prioritizes increasing foreign direct investment. In September 2017, the government devalued the official currency rate by almost 50% and announced the loosening of currency restrictions to eliminate the currency black market, increase access to hard currency, and boost investment.

GDP real growth rate:

5.3% (2017 est.)
7.8% (2016 est.)
7.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

12.5% (2017 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
country comparison to the world: 213

Credit ratings:

Fitch rating: BB- (2018)
Moody's rating: B1 (2019)
Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2018)

GDP (purchasing power parity) - real:

$223 billion (2017 est.)
$211.8 billion (2016 est.)
$196.5 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$57.789 billion (2019 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$6,900 (2017 est.)
$6,700 (2016 est.)
$6,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 139

Gross national saving:

32.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
25.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 17.9% (2017 est.)
industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)
services: 48.5% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 59.5% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 16.3% (2017 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 25.3% (2017 est.)
investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.)
exports of goods and services: 19% (2017 est.)
imports of goods and services: -20% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores:

58.2 (2020)

Agriculture - products:

cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock


textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate:

4.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Labor force:

13.273 million (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate:

5% (2017 est.)
5.1% (2016 est.)
note: official data; another 20% are underemployed
country comparison to the world: 80

Population below poverty line:

14% (2016 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)


revenues: 15.22 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 15.08 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

31.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Public debt:

24.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Current account balance:

$1.713 billion (2017 est.)
$384 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43


$11.48 billion (2017 est.)
$11.2 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Exports - partners:

Switzerland 38.7%, China 15.5%, Russia 10.7%, Turkey 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.7%, Afghanistan 4.7% (2017)

Exports - commodities:

energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles


$11.42 billion (2017 est.)
$10.92 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals

Imports - partners:

China 23.7%, Russia 22.5%, Kazakhstan 10.7%, South Korea 9.8%, Turkey 5.8%, Germany 5.6% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$16 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65

Debt - external:

$16.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$16.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Exchange rates:

Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
3,906.1 (2017 est.)
2,966.6 (2016 est.)
2,966.6 (2015 est.)
2,569.6 (2014 est.)
2,311.4 (2013 est.)


Electricity access:

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity - production:

55.55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

Electricity - consumption:

49.07 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Electricity - exports:

13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Electricity - imports:

10.84 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

12.96 million kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

86% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212

Crude oil - production:

41,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Crude oil - exports:

27,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

Crude oil - imports:

420 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Crude oil - proved reserves:

594 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Refined petroleum products - production:

61,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

60,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Refined petroleum products - exports:

3,977 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Refined petroleum products - imports:

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214

Natural gas - production:

52.1 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Natural gas - consumption:

43.07 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Natural gas - exports:

9.401 billion cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207

Natural gas - proved reserves:

1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

95.58 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46


Telephones - fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 3,262,896
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10.77 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

Telephones - mobile cellular:

total subscriptions: 30,662,740
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101.21 (2019 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45

Telecommunication systems:

general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas; increased investment in infrastructure and growing subscriber base; fixed-line is underdeveloped due to preeminence of mobile market; introduction of prepaid Internet has contributed to home Internet usage; increase in mobile broadband penetration yet still early stages; Wi-Fi hotspot in the city of Tashkent in the future (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 11 per 100 person and mobile-cellular 101 per 100; the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbek Telecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 2 private and 3 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 22.8 million as of January 2018 (2019)
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber-optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media:

the government controls media; 17 state-owned broadcasters - 13 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2019, the Uzbek Agency for Press and Information was reorganized into the Agency of Information and Mass Communications and became part of the Uzbek Presidential Administration with recent appointment of the Uzbek President's elder daughter as it deputy director (2019)

Internet country code:


Internet users:

total: 15,705,402
percent of population: 52.31% (July 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Broadband - fixed subscriptions:

total: 4,123,508
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33


National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 34
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,056,558 (2018)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 89.43 million mt-km (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

UK (2016)


53 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 88

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 33 (2013)
over 3,047 m: 6 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
under 914 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 20 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 18 (2013)


13,700 km gas, 944 km oil (2016)


total: 4,642 km (2018)
broad gauge: 4,642 km 1.520-m gauge (1,684 km electrified) (2018)
country comparison to the world: 42


total: 86,496 km (2000)
paved: 75,511 km (2000)
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
country comparison to the world: 58


1,100 km (2012)
country comparison to the world: 62

Ports and terminals:

river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)

Military and Security

Military and security forces:

Armed Forces of Uzbekistan: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces; National Guard; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Security Troops (2019)

Military expenditures:

4% of GDP (2018)
3.5% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 12

Military and security service personnel strengths:

assessments for the size of the Armed Forces of Uzbekistan vary; approximately 55,000 total active troops (est. 45,000 Army; est. 10,000 Air and Air Defense Forces) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:

the Uzbek Armed Forces use mainly Soviet-era equipment, although since 2010 they have received weapons and aircraft from a variety of sources, including China, France, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and the US (2019 est.)

Military service age and obligation:

18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation for males (conscripts have the option of paying for a shorter service of one month while remaining in the reserves until the age of 27); Uzbek citizens who have completed their service terms in the armed forces have privileges in employment and admission to higher educational institutions (2016)


Terrorist group(s):

Islamic Jihad Union; Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (2019)
note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:

prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

stateless persons: 97,346 (2019)

Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; government-compelled forced labor of adults remained endemic during the 2014 cotton harvest; despite a decree banning the use of persons under 18, children were mobilized to harvest cotton by local officials in some districts; in some regions, local officials forced teachers, students, private business employees, and others to work in construction, agriculture, and cleaning parks; Uzbekistani women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in the Middle East, Eurasia, and Asia; Uzbekistani men and, to a lesser extent, women are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine in the construction, oil, agriculture, retail, and food sectors
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement efforts in 2014 were mixed; the government made efforts to combat sex and transnational labor trafficking, but government-compelled forced labor of adults in the cotton harvest went unaddressed, and the decree prohibiting forced child labor was not applied universally; official complicity in human trafficking in the cotton harvest remained prevalent; authorities made efforts to identify and protect sex and transnational labor victims, although a systematic process is still lacking; minimal efforts were made to assist victims of forced labor in the cotton harvest, as the government does not openly acknowledge the existence of this forced labor; the ILO did not have permission or funding to monitor the 2014 harvest, but the government authorized the UN's International Labour Organization to conduct a survey on recruitment practices and working conditions in agriculture, particularly the cotton sector, and to monitor the 2015-17 cotton harvests for child and forced labor in project areas (2015)

Illicit drugs:

transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan